Hydatid disease: medical problems, veterinary solutions, political obstacles
From the Medical Journal of Australia, this editorial deals with the struggles in dealing with hydatid disease. Contains referenced resources.

Genetic variation and epidemiology of Echinococcus granulosus in Argentina.
This is a link to an “Abstract” found in the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Hydatids – when a dog is not man’s best friend
Published by the Australian Academy of Science, this piece deals with the life cycle of hydatid disease, how it is spread and more specifically what role your pet dog can play.

Manipulative parasites in the world of veterinary science: Implications for epidemiology and pathology
A full 18-page review by Clément Lagrue *, Robert Poulin, Department of Zoology, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin 9054 New Zealand

Echinococcus granulosus in the wolf in Italy
This is a link to an “Abstract” of a study. You may have to join or purchase the full study.

The Distribution of Echinococcus Granulosus in Moose: Evidence for parasite induced vulnerability to predation of wolves?
This link contains the first page, including the Abstract, of a study that suggests that moose infected with hydatid cysts makes them more susceptible to fall prey to wolves. (You will have to purchase the entire report.)

Hydatid (Echinococcus) Disease in Canada and the United States
This link to the Oxford Journals, American Journal of Epidemiology, contains a report by Thomas B. Magath and published in 1936. His work documents recorded cases of human hydatid disease in Canada and the U.S. from 1921 – 1936, with additional cases that had not been previously recorded prior to 1921.
The full text of the report is available through a subscription and fee.

Survival of Protoscolices of Echinococcus Granulosus at Constant Temperatures
Ferron L. Anderson and Raymond M. Loveless of Department of Zoology, Brigham Young University, Published in the Journal of Parasitology, Vol. 64, No. 1, Feb. 1978
Contains the first page, including Abstract. Full text of the study can be purchased.

Echinococcus Granulosus: Variability of the Host-Protective EG95 Vaccine antigen in G6 and G7 genotypic variants
Conan Chow, Charles G. Gauci, Gulay Vural, David J. Jenkins, David D. Heath, Mara C. Rosenzvit, Majid Fasihi Harandi, Marshall W. Lightowlers,*
Received 19 November 2007; received in revised form 20 January 2008; accepted 28 January 2008
Available online 2 February 2008
Full Text

Oncospheral penetration glands are the source of the EG95 vaccine antigen against cystic hydatid disease
(Received 30 March 2010; revised 9 June 2010; accepted 10 June 2010; first published online 21 July 2010)
Immunohistochemistry and immunogold labelling techniques were used to localize the EG95 vaccine antigen in Echinococcus granulosus oncospheres. In non-activated oncospheres, the cytoplasm of 2 pairs of bilateral cells exhibited specific positive labelling for the presence of EG95. No surface localization was seen in non-activated or recently activated oncospheres. Besides the staining of 2 pairs of bilateral cells, there was also a generalized distribution of specific staining for EG95 throughout the parenchyma of activated oncospheres. Immunogold labelling of non-activated oncosphere revealed specific reactivity for EG95 involving 2 pairs of bilateral cells and the ultrastructural characteristics of these cells were consistent with them being penetration gland cells. No other oncospheral structures stained specifically for the presence of EG95. The absence of surface location of EG95 in oncospheres suggests that the parasite may not be susceptible to vaccineinduced antibody and complement mediated attack until some post-oncospheral development has occurred. Further studies would be required to determine when the EG95 antigen associates with the parasite’s surface, thus making them susceptible to immune attack.
Key words: hydatid disease, vaccination, antigen, EG95, oncospheres, location.

Hydatid disease (Echinococcus granulosus) in Australian Wildlife – FACT SHEET
From the Australian Wildlife Health Network

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